Posts tagged motherboard repairing

laptop repairing course

Choose Laptop Repairing Course Of Superlative Chiptroniks Institute At lower Fees


Inside modern time various points in training as well as engineering usually are increasing day by day. As the numbers of Laptop, tablets and notebook PC end users is mounting day by day as well as difficulty or issues related to these may also be raising related to laptops or notebook PCs.

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laptop repairing course

The duration of laptop repairing course is 3-6 months, various institutes also offer 1-2 year course, apprentices can select short term course or 1-2 year course. After competing superlative laptop repairing course from brilliant institute, apprentices can get good job with greatest salary. In our wonderful institute you will practice best laptop repairing course, we also offer training in motherboard repairing , SMPS, Basic electronics, Repairing of Desktop motherboard, Tablet PC repairing as well as other technical aspect. Join excellent as well as most reliable laptop repairing institute chiptroniks and get complete skills with knowledge on how to repair a laptop device without any dilemma.

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Apprentices may easily start up her own business in this meticulous field through small scale then grow it at large scale. This really is such a business where apprentices may quickly earn additional by making a less investment. Besides this there are plentiful job possibilities lying in the laptop repairing sector for the apprentices.

laptop repairing course

Know About Laptop Repairing Course And Their Advantages


In this innovative and technical advanced world, there is a enormous lack of technically qualified persons in organizations such as laptop repairing, Smartphone repairing as well as other technical devices or gadgets. Nowadays you cannot search a person without having a laptop or tablet. This may be carried with you wherever you go as well as you may complete your work from anywhere due to these handy devices. Hence there is always a large demand for laptop repairing.

In Delhi, there are several institutes which gives training as well as amazing laptop repairing course to the people. During the course and training , the scholars are taught the technical topics ( such as basic electronic, tablet PC repairing , motherboard repairing, Chip level laptop repairing, SMPS etc).

laptop repairing course

It is very vital to find the ideal and superb institute to learn laptop repairing to manage your laptop for lifetime performance. The most ideal way to search the good institute to find on internet where you may search the long list of laptop repairing institutes which gives training and provides the laptop repairing courses.

In these laptop repairing institutes, faculties train you with complete pictures of parts/components as well as specifications of a laptop. This will allows the trainees to get an idea about the components of a laptop as well as how to repair them in requirement. During the laptop repairing course, repairing of entire models of laptops are being discussed so that the applicants are fully aware of the functions of various types of laptops.

power delivery system in motherboards


In this article we will discuss Power Delivery system in Motherboards . For more in depth training , join PCLR Course of chiptroniks or you can also buy our course materials with online support.

Power Delivery

Power delivery—Why & How

Why: Motherboard components need one or multiple stable and clean DC power to work correctly

How: (1) Power Supply directly to motherboard components (2) for the power which Power Supply can not provide directly, DC to DC power converter on the motherboard converts the power and provide to components

Voltages type needed

Postive DC Voltage: generally between 0V to 12V, generated by DC-DC converter 0.75V, 1.5V, 1.1V… or directly from power supply, like 3.3V, 5V, 12V

Negative DC Voltage: typically -12V

Motherboard voltage normally ranges from -12V to 12V

Tips: General speaking

Higher speed component=> lower voltage needed

(especially for IO function)

Current types needed

Simple answer: Power/voltage=current needed

Low power device: <2A, example: Clock chip, LAN…

Medium power device : between 2A to 50A: example: Fan, DIMM, Chipset

High power device: >50A, example: processor, high power DIMM, high end Graphic card etc

The low/medium/high is just general category, no standard

Tips: High current device has higher requirements on the PCB

Space, layers, cost, copper thickness…, all in all, bigger current,

more design challenge for power designer and CAD engineer

Examples: components Voltage & Current

1.0V to 1.5V, 50A to 150A, 130W

1.8V/0.9V for DDR2, 1.5V/0.75V for DDR3, 20A to 40A, 50-100W

Chipset: 1.1V, 10-20A, 5W to 30W

Onboard device: 1.5A, 1-2A, 3.3V, 0.5W to 5W

PCI slot: PCI slot: 12V, 0.5A, 3.3V, 3A, 5V, 1A, 15W, 25W, 75W or more

Fan connector: Depends on fan used, ranges from 0.1A to 5A, 5W to 50W


Normally 1 Components need multiple voltage rails

depends on what function needed, such as ICH need

1.5V, 3.3V, 1.8V…, more function, more voltage rails needed

For example: ICH has more voltage rail than CPU

due to ICH has more functions

Voltage types by components function

Components may need several voltages by functions: below is general category

(CPU), VDD (DIMM), occupy most the power pin of the components

IO Voltage: Core Voltage: Main voltage for core logic, most of the power consumes on the main voltage) for the core function, example VCCP Voltage for BUS, example: CPU Vtt

Reference Voltage: voltage used for signal sampling

Analog voltage: Some components include analog function, so analog voltage needed, such as Video, PLL circuit, analog voltage require to be clean ! Need to be separated from normal voltage

Components may contain 1 or more type of voltages depends on

Function needed, such as ICH need all 3 above voltages

Voltage types by power state

Some voltage are only required for certain power state

Normal Voltage: Voltage existing when the system is at S0 to S2 state, which means system is at ON state, like CPU main power, fan power, which is main power for the system

Battery Voltage: Voltage existing when the system at AC OFF status, it is powered by onboard battery. Example RTC clock

Standby Voltage: voltage always exists at S0 to S5 state (DC OFF), which means system at DC off state, AC power code is plugged, it is used for board power on/off logic and wake up function and some management function and other functions need to be functional at main power off state, remember, when AC power cord inserted, standby voltage exists !!

Aux Voltage: Voltage switch by between Standby voltage and same Normal Voltage, the main reason of Aux voltage is the function is needed through S0 to S5 state, but standby power can not provide enough current at S0-S2 state due to the device consume more power at S0-S2 state then S3-S5 state, so voltage need switch from standby voltage to normal voltage to get enough current , example: DDR voltage 1.8V, when system is at S3, the Aux voltage comes from 1.8V standby power to keep DIMM refresh, after power on to S0 state, Aux voltage switch to 1.8V normal voltage to support DIMM normal read/write (which consume much more current)

Components may contain 1 or more type of voltages depends on

Function needed, such as ICH need all 4 above voltages

Let us take a look at a real sample-Chipset

G41 MCH (north bridge) function/power mapping

(not exactly correct, just for example)

Another example—ICH 10

ICH 10 has require more than 20 voltage rails !! due to lots of functions integrated in ICH 10

Refer to product EDS for pin definition and power requirement

Example 3—PCI-E slot Power requirement

This voltage supply to add in PCI-e card, Card is required to design within this limit

Overall Power Delivery Example–Thurley

Overall Power Delivery Example2—Romley

Motherboard Input Power

Now, we know what kind of power (voltage/Current) needed by components, but where does it come from? Answer: from Power Supply, directly or indirectly

Power Supply Output (motherboard input)

Power Supply output type:

Multiple Output:

Power supply has multiple DC output rail (NOT connector)

Popular 12V, 5V, 3.3V, -12V, 5VSB and other voltage

12V output may have separate rails, like 12V1, 12V2, etc for 240VA protection

Single output: 12V or other voltage only

Power supply has single DC output, 12V is most popular

Battery is single output example

Power Supply output interface:

Connector: board to board or board to cable connector

PCB gold finger: PCB to mating connector


Most of single output PSU also has standby output, like 5VSB

Power Supply Output example 1

Desktop ATX PSU : Multiple output, cable + connector

Server EPS12V : Multiple output, cable + connector

Power Supply Output example 2

Notebook Adapter:

19V Single output, connector, connect to motherboard directly

Hotswap module :

12V single output, gold finger and board to board connector


normally it also has 5VSB output

Motherboard side interface

General Rule: mate with power supply output


Gold finger mating connector

Board to Board connector




Motherboard power rails & Power supply rails

As we talked before, multiple-output power supply has multiple output, each rail will have current limit, and each rail are separated below is example


Same for motherboard, motherboard will also have multiple rails, like 3.3V, 5V, 12V1, 12V3a…, each rail has current requirement, so we need to mapping the power supply rails to motherboard rails to make sure both power supply & motherboard rails can be met

Next page is example


Rail mapping Example



Power supply connector/rail mapping


Power supply rail can be separate to support multiple

motherboard rail, but reverse is NOT allowed!, otherwise it will

Short power supply rails and cause protection

DC to DC converter

So far, we know how power supply provide voltage rail to motherboard, like 12V, 5V 3.3V, etc by connectors or PCB gold finger or other method, but for the other voltage power supply can not provide, like 1.1V, 1.5V, 0.8V, we need DC to DC converter on the motherboard to convert the power supply voltage to the voltage we needed

DC to DC converter also called Voltage regulator (VR)

DC to DC converter (VR) types

(1) Linear voltage regulator

-Low current

-Low efficiency

-Low cost


-Clean (little noise)

-High current

-High efficiency

-High cost


-High noise

Linear VR

Simple & Clean (little noise)

-Low current

-Low voltage drop

-Low efficiency

-Low cost


(1) Why low current and low voltage drop?

vdrop on the VR= Vout-Vin, so the power loss = I x Vdrop, for example: Vin=3.3V, Vout=1.5V, 2A, so the power loss on converter is (3.3-1.5)x2=3.6W, assume 50C/W, so the temp rise will be 150C, which is burn the components, so only low current and low voltage is allowed, Linear VR only support low current requirement

(2) Why low efficiency?

The efficiency= output power/input power, obvious, it is low efficiency due to the power loss on the converter is big, the bigger difference between Vin and Vout, the lower efficiency is.

(3) Why simple & clean & low cost

It is simple & due to just a few components needed

It is clean due to no switch components, it is easier to place & layout the linear VR

Switching VR Types—Single Phase

-High current

-High efficiency

-High cost


-High noise

Basic working principal is by control the mosfet PWM value to adjust the output voltage, Vout/Vin=PWM%, for example: 12V to 1.5V, PWM=12.5%

Switching VR efficiency is between 80 to 98% depends on VR design, the main power loss is VR Mosfet switching & conduct loss

It can handle high current due to high efficiency

High cost /complex is obvious: it need chip, mosfet, inductor, capacitor…

High noise: due to switching method and mosfet switching, it has much higher noise than linear regulator

We will NOT discuss how VR works here, refer to VR training slides

if you are interested, Overall speaking, VR is a complex technology


Switching VR Types—Multi Phase

VR example

Switching VR—single phase 12V to DDR 1.5V

Switching VR—multi phase 12V to CPU Vcore

Linear VR–3.3V to IOH 1.8V


Linear VR–3.3V to IOH 1.8V

VR placement & layout

CPU VCCP VR placement

CPU VCCP VR copper planar

Career in Chip level Repairing


In this article , We will explain  the essence of chip level repairing together with the happening future of the chip level technicians . We will also explain How CHIPTRONIKS stands tall  in this market .

Every year thousands of Desktop PCs, Servers, Printers, Laptops etc are being sold and these Electronics Products becomes faulty/defective during their warranty as well as after warranty. As it is well known that in the First World Countries, the MNC Companies have monopoly on their products and as such they have tried to dominate the Concept of USE and Throw, secondly the cost of manpower in repairing the faulty devices are so high that the Chip Level Repair Technology can not be justified. As a result these MNC companies who are the manufacturers of Computer Systems and its Peripherals have never favoured the development of the Components Level Repair so that they can sell a complete PCB Assembly of any peripherals at high price.

In developing countries  like India , African nations , the scenario is pretty different  owing to low manpower and economical status . These countries are obsessed with term longevity and mileage . So people  would like to use the electronics components as long as possible . This develops  a huge market fro repairing.
CHIPTRONIKS  which is led by the Intelligent team of IITians , the leader in technology  has been the frontrunner in delivering  technical training developed a methodology for chip level training . Its a common notion and practice that the experienced guys in this market tried to avoid sharing of knowledge and tips they have gathered . But this attitude among the experienced technicians  was a big roadblock to developments in repairing technology . CHIPTRONIKS  dedicated research and development created the feasibility of such training In India  and now students and technicians across the world are flocking to  our labs for such training . Moreover the the component level repairing(chip level) can be done at 80 % of the cost , so the value of this type of  repairing  has increased.
There are so many institutes which provide repairing training at card level but none of them have the expertise and capability to offer chip level  training . In a way the training offered by them are only 25 % . So CHIPTRONIKS attracts not only fresh technicians but also experienced engineers to gain  the fruits of chip level repairing technology.
The advantages of chip Level Engineer over Card Level Engineer will always be there because of better troubleshooting knowledge by understanding the measurements of parameters of ICs and discrete components of which each peripherals are made of.
For example, a DMP printer’s have logic card problem, which will cost about Rs. 3000/- for a new Logic Card in order to Service it, so a Card Level Engineer will suggest to the customers to buy a new printer’s logic card where as a Chip Level Engineer will suggest to repair the faulty logic card at approx. Rs. 500/- and bill at Rs. 1500/- to the customer. Therefore the demand for the Chip Level Repairing is there all over India.
A Chip Level Repair Engineer will get highest salary in any firm a compared to Card Level Hardware Engineer. So those who know the Chip Level Repair Technology are the prestigious and elite ones. Generally any Hardware Engineer who after learning Chip Level Repair Technology should get an increment of about 25%-30% on his salary.
Our all trainers are Level 4 repairing engineers who can handle any type of repairing themselves plus they are aware of the ESD norms and so they can guide the precautionary steps needed for chip level repairing . CHIPTRONIKS posess advance equipments like : Jovy System BGA machines ,Xytronics Soldering station, JBC De-soldering stations , SMPS load tester ,Repower Cell test system,RAMCHECK PLUS MEMORY TESTER , OSCILLOSCOPE (IWATSU SS7840), Point Soldering manchine and many other speciL TOOLS .
CHIPTRONIKS has also developed manuals  for all repairing the motherboards , monitors , laptops , smps . These all manuals are all practical based . Our manuals are even used by many companies .
So I think joining CHIPTRONIKS will  fulfill your dream of becoming a chip level engineer .

chip level(sample)


Motherboard Components are two types

Hole Through Components: Processor Socket (PIII), RAM bank, Expansion slots, I/O Ports, etc

SMD (Surface Mounting Device) Chipset, IC regulator, Mosfets, Tantalum Capacitor, Resistors Processor Socket in the case of PIV etc

Motherboard PCB

Motherboard PCB can be made up of Fiberglass or Bakelite. PCB can be available in multiple layers. The layers structure enables multiple wires to send data without their signal interfering with each other. The multiple layers also add strength to the Motherboard.

Layers of PCB

Single /Double layers

Four Layers

Six Layers

Eight Layers

Ten Layers

Twelve layers etc

Note that PIII Motherboard available in Four layers & PIV Motherboard available in six layers

Top & Bottom Layers of PCB pass data signal, Clock signal, Reset signals etc

Inner layers of PCB pass Current

Tools used in Motherboard Repairing

Soldering & Disordering Tools

Cleaning Tools

Basic Tools for e.g. Tweezers, Paper Cutter, Scissor etc

Testing tools Debug Card, DMM etc

Hot air Gun/Disoldering Pump

Liquid Flux etc

Motherboard Repairable Condition

  • Repairable Condition
  • Non Repairable Condition: Service Engineer is not full skill

Due to Non availability of Components or burned or damaged PCB

Represents & Testing of M/B Power section Components

  • R – Resistor
  • D – Diode
  • Q – Mosfet
  • C – Capacitor
  • L – Inductor
  • Q or Tr – Transistor/MOSFET
  • F – Fuse
  • RN                      Resistor Network
  • CN                      Capacitor Network
  • U                          IC/Chipset

Resistor: – It is used to oppose the current.

It is checked on Ohmmeter.

It has two legs.

Diode: – It is used to convert the AC to DC.

It is checked on range of Diode.

It has two legs i.e. +ve & -ve. (Dark area shows the negtive)

Mosfet: – It is used to regulate the voltage.

It is checked on range of Diode.

Mosfet show one legs show the value and other show the multimeter value i.e. infinite value

It has three legs i.e. Source, Gate, Drain.

Capacitor: – It is used to store the electricity & purify the impure DC to pure DC.

It is checked on range of mf and also checked on Mega ohm i.e. If capacitor is ok than it show the resistance

It has two legs i.e. +ve & -ve.

Inductor: – It is used to filtration.

It is checked on range of continuity.

It has two legs.

Transistor: – It is used to amplifying the signal.

It is checked on range of Diode.

It has three legs i.e.Emmitor, Base, Collector.

Motherboard Testing

Through Debug Card: It is testing device which can attach on PCI slots and it generates the Hexadecimal Codes from where the system engineer sense the faults in Motherboard.

One thing is noted that the hexadecimal codes are differing according to the BIOS.

Some Common codes are following

Motherboard Testing (Debug Card)

Code OK     Memory Error               mp Error

00 C0                 BC

FF C1                 EA

7F C2

2F C3

26 D0

27 D1+continue long Beep

28etc         D2


60+continue long Beep

Through BIOS beep Code

BIOS show some beep code in POST screen from where the System Engineer senses the faults in Motherboard. BIOS beep codes are also vary according to the manufacturing of BIOS. Some common BIOS beep codes are following:

BIOS Beep Code

Number of Beeps Solving Problem

1 short Beep System is OK (Acceptance Beep)

2/3/4 short Beep Check the RAM & Video adapter

Card properly connected.

5   short Beep         Check the RAM properly installed or not                            check the mP. Replace the mP & M/B.

6   short Beep         Try attaching a difference K/B.

7   short Beep           Replace the CPU / M/B

8   short Beep           Check the Video Card (Display)                                                     9 short Beep           Check the BIOS Chip is properly

Attached or not

10 short Beep                    CMOS Chip Problems

11 short Beep           Cache memory Chip

1Long 3 Short Beep RAM Problem

1Long 8 Short Beep           Video Card Problem

Continue long Beep RAM Problem

Precaution while rework on Motherboard

  • The value of each component should be same.
  • The size of capacitor should be same or less.
  • The capacitance of capacitor should be same.
  • The resistance of resistor should be same.
  • Hot Air Gun should be handled properly
  • Working surface should be neat & clean.

Rework on M/B

  • Chips, IC
  • M/B Power Section i.e. capacitor, mosfets, inductor
  • Rework on I/O ports.
  • Rebuilding the burned or cuts tracks.

To give Motherboard faults

    • System/ Motherboard is giving the display but restart again &again after completing the POST Sol: 1 first of all visualizes the M/B carefully. There  can be some burnt or damage tracks or components

2 check the electrolytic capacitor it can be damage

3 checks the crystal oscillator mounting near the clock generation chip replace it

4 The clock generation chip may be bad

5 Bad BIOS

6 Press the north bridge and the south bridge chipset    with a grate force with the help of your thump.

7 Reinsert the BIOS.

  • M/B is dead no display on monitor and the DEBUG card is giving 00; FF; 88 codes but it is switching on properly.

Sol: 1 First of all checks the physical condition of M/B i.e. burnt or worm out tracks on the M/B.

2 BIOS may be bad or incorrectly flashed

3 check the electrolytic capacitor if found bad replace it, while replacing the electrolytic capacitor you should take care for:

1. The volume or WVC work voltage and capacitance should be same

2. Capacitor size should be same

3. Polarity should be correct otherwise it will blast after some time.

4 bad BIOS replace the BIOS with the same

5 super I/O chip may be bad replace it.

6 check the voltage regulator i.e. MOSFETS replace if found bad

7 If problem is still than check the mp or RAM using

replacing method

8 If problem is still than problem in m/b

  • M/B is dead no display on monitor & the DEBUG card is giving       C0; C1; C2; C3; D0; D1; D2; D3etc.

It is switching on properly also the internal speaker is giving the continuous long beep.

Sol: check some burn or worn out track near the RAM slots and Mp sockets

2: check the operating voltage i.e. 3.3 V for SDRAM and 2.5V for DDRSDRAM into the RAM slot.

If this voltage is absent then check the voltage regulator [MOSFETS]

3 clean the RAM slot with acetone .it may be dirty or corrosive camp

4 If all these are ok than replace the RAM

  • M/B is dead and is not switching on.

Sol: 1 check the physical condition of M/B

2 Check the CMOS clear jumper it may be set on clear, set it on normal mode.

3 Check the dry soldering on Motherboard Power Connector

4 the super I/O chip may be bade. Replace it.

5 south bridge chips may be bad.

6 some times the M/B inner layers may be damage so in this condition the M/B cannot repair further.

7. Before performing all above actions check the SMPS

  • The M/B is switching ON/OFF properly & is giving the display but it hang\halt after completing the POST or after 10-15 minutes.

Sol: 1 check the physical condition of M/B

2 check the M/B’s power connector .it may be dry solder or spark.

3 check the electrolyte capacitor

4 also check the voltage regulator i.e. MOSFETS

5 some time the BIOS may be or incorrectly flashed so refresh or replace it

  • M/B is giving the display but the K/B is not working and during POST the following message is display.

“Key board error”


“No key board present”

Solution:    1 the K/B connector may be dry solder

2 Some time there is some burnt track or

component near the K/B connector

3 if still problem proceed than bad super I/O chip

4 Before performing all these actions first of all check keyboard itself

  • The M/B is giving the display but parallel port is not working

Sol: 1 check the resistor network mountings near the

parallel port

  1. check the track from parallel port to super I/O chip
  2. Dry soldered or bad parallel port
  3. Some time the super I/O chip may bad
    • The M/B giving the displays but one of the serial port is not working

Sol: 1 serial port may be dry solder

2 check the track from serial port to GD75232 chip and from GD75232 to Super I/O chip

3 GD 75232 chip may be bad

4 Some time super I/O chip may be bad

  • M/B is giving the display but FDD connector is not working

Sol: 1Check Dry solders on FDD connector

2 bad floppy drive connector

3 visualize the physical condition of connector and tracks between the FDD Connector and super I/O   chip

4 the super I/O chip may be bad

    • The M/B is giving the display but not audio out put

Sol: 1 check the audio controller is not disable trey & jumpers on M/B some times. The audio controller is disabling through BIOS so first of all check these setting.

2 If these are ok then check the crystal oscillators and voltage regulator IC LM 78xx; LM 317; LM34 mounted near the audio controller chip

3 Bad BIOS so either replace it or refresh it

4 The audio controller may also be bad.

SMPS Voltages

Voltage used by M/B components

SDRAM: 3.3 V




P3 1.45v to 1.95 V

Cel3 1.6V to 2.1V

Cyrix C3 2.0V

PIV & Cel4 1.45V

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