Posts tagged BGA repair

laptop repairing course syllabus 3 month

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BGA Chips & BGA rework Stations Deciphered !!

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Dear All ,

I am Vipin from CHIPTRONIKS (India), and i am writing this article in order to clear some important concepts of bga rework stations, bga chips and their compatibility.

IR & Hot Air : Honestly speaking  GO for high power IR bga machine like RE8500 , more power and complete IR. You can also opt for Scotle brands , as they are semi IR.

Lead Free/Leaded

Its best not to use lead free balls for a lead based solder ball IC as this will damage the chip as higher temperature’s needed for lead free. For lead free chips you can use lead based solder as this will not affect them as lower temperature is needed for lead based solder. Also this will make the repair more reliable as lead based solder isn’t so much affected by thermal cycling (regular and repeated heating and cooling of the chip during use of laptop). when i started my repairing business by seeing the ICH (south bridge) from intel chipset starts with “FW” for lead & “NH” for lead free.

How to tell BGA Chip is new or refurbished ?

To tell if it is new, you need to inspect under microscope to look for scratches, residue, and knicks. New chips are flawless. The under surface is also usually shiny and not dulled by a reflow. Also, most reballed chips are 63/37 balls. factory new would have lead free solder.

List of  BGA Chip which can be replaced with each other without Problem:

As Our company operates one of the biggest service centre with hudreds of laptops repaired fortnightly ,we have tried number of combination which successfully works. This list is purely ours and we do not guarantee 100 % but still i can say it will work ,as al i have tried personally. Even though CHIPTRONIKS is the biggest stockist of ics in the market , but still sometimes we also have to work in alternatives.

AMD/ATI Radeon parts 216-0674022 0674024 0674026

G86-750-A2 was in a Sony Vaio Laptop, replacing it  G86-770-A2 works fantastic.

G86-300-A2–> G86-731-A2 G86-730-A2

G86-302-A2 G86-731-A2 G86-730-A2

G86-303-A2 G86-731-A2 G86-730-A2

G86-602-A2 G86-631-A2 G86-603-A2, G86-620-A2, G86-630-A2

G86-603-A2 G86-631-A2 G86-630-A2

G86-620-A2 G86-631-A2 G86-630-A2

G86-625-A2 G86-635-A2 G86-630-A2

G86-630-A2 G86-631-A2

G86-631-A2 G86-631-A2 G86-630-A2

G86-635-A2 G86-635-A2

G86-703-A2 G86-731-A2 G86-730-A2

G86-730-A2 G86-731-A2 G86-730-A2

G86-731-A2 G86-731-A2 G86-730-A2

G86-740-A2 G86-731-A2 G86-730-A2

G86-750-A2 G86-771-A2 G86-770-A2

G86-770-A2 G86-771-A2 G86-750-A2

G86-771-A2 G86-771-A2 G86-770-A2

Le 965GM for LE82GT965

Secret :
If one solder G86- 770-a2  instead of 730, you must put in 64-bit mode, disabling half of the VRAM.
If you encounter resistance R133 in the plate, remove and R112 instead solder.
If R133 is not present, then take a 10k resistor and solder at position R112.
The line MIOBD9 sets whether the chart was 64, or 128 bits, there will the graph 3V in 64 bits.
This method can also be applied when we have a failure of VRAM. If we are lucky that the fault is in the middle of the VRAM off, it is preferable to do this, instead of 8 chips reboll.

Image

 

he photo shows the replacement of resistance has to be able to use the 128-bit chips (G86-731-A2 128 bit version, G86-750-A2 G86-751-A2, G86-770-A2, G86 -771-A2).

In this case the resistor R133 was not present (indicated by lower needle) and had to be welded only 10K resistor R112 (in the upper needle pointing)

So i think this article will help solve some bga related queries . If you have any issues , you can comment.

Hardware Identification

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  • AMD CPU Info: Software from AMD to correctly detect the installed AMD CPU on your PC.
  • AMD CPUID: Software from AMD to detect the CPU clock, L1 and L2 memory cache, model, revision and supported instruction sets.
  • AMD OverDrive: Program for identifying, monitoring and overclocking AMD CPUs.
  • AMI Motherboard ID Utility: Finds out your motherboard manufacturer if its BIOS is from AMI.
  • BIOS Agent: Software that identifies everything about your BIOS and the need of a BIOS upgrade.
  • Cpuid: Identifies the installed CPU.
  • Cpuidw: Identifies the installed CPU.
  • CPU-Z: Identifies the installed CPU.
  • CD-R Identifier: Identifies the CD-R media brand name. It is necessary to install ForceASPI first, which is also available at this link.
  • Codec Check: Small utility that detects which audio codec your motherboard has, allowing you to install the correct audio driver on your system.
  • Ctbios: Finds out your motherboard manufacturer.
  • Ctbios 1.5: Ctbios more updated version. Besides recognizing your PC motherboard manufacturer, it gives you a lot of information about it. The only problem is that this is software is in german.
  • Ctp2info: Checks if your Pentium II or Pentium III processor is counterfeit or not.
  • Ctpci: Lists all PCI devices installed on your PCI. Very usefull to find out your motherboard real chipset.
  • Dimm_id: Checks if the type of SDRAM memory installed on your PC is PC-66 or PC-100.
  • EVEREST Home Edition: Indentifies your PC hardware, including your motherboard manufacturer and model.
  • GPU-Z: Program that reports all features from your video card graphics chip (GPU).
  • Hwinfo: Excelente indentification software. Very useful to determine your motherboard manufacturer, model and chipset. More updated than Ctbios.
  • Intel Turbo Boost Monitor: Small utility to monitor Turbo Boost tecnology.
  • MobileMeter: Program for monitoring the temperature, clock rates and battery charge/discharge from your laptop.
  • PC-Config: Identifies all components from your PC.
  • PC Wizard: Program that identifies all hardware parts installed on your PC.
  • Sandra: Identification, test and benchmarking software.
  • Unknown Device Identifier: Software for identifying unknown devices installed on your PC, excellent to find out more information about devices Windows isn’t able to correctly detect.
  • Wcpuid 3.0: Identifies the installed CPU, giving you detailed info about it.

How to Reball

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In this article , we will show how to reball . The following video will describe the reballing process in great detail.

Tutorial on removing North Bridge with BGA Rework Station

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In this article , we will cover how to remove North Bridge with BGA REWORK Station . Since the best BGA Rework Station currently available in the Market is Jovy-Systems RE-7500 . We will show its working in the post .

BGA Reballing guide

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In this tutorial , we will discuss simple procedure for reballing process. Hope you will enjoy it .  Look at our complete BGA REWORK SOLUTIONS

bga rework station guide

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CHIPTRONIKS , A Division of VD Intellisys is Authorized Distributor of  JOVY SYSTEMS BGA REWORK STATIONS in India . For more details visit http://www.bga-rework.in or call 09971004998.

A guide to the BGA Package

  1. What is it?
  2. Why have they caught on?
  3. Are they difficult to place – by machine?
  4. Is it possible to place them by hand?
  5. How do you know if a BGA has fully soldered – and don’t you need an X-ray machine?
  6. Can a BGA be removed, reworked and replaced?
  7. Can the PCB design influence the manufacturability?
  8. What works best – printed paste or flux only?
  9. What ways of soldering are used – and can they be verified?

1. What is a BGA?

The B(all) G(rid) A(rray) or BGA package invented by Motorola,  is now a mainstream packaging technology.  The most common example consists of a thin substrate of PCB material onto which the chip is mounted.  Under the substrate is an array of solder balls forming the terminations.  During reflow these balls fuse with corresponding pads on the Main PCB and form the joints.

2. Why have they caught on?

The BGA excels when it comes to high pin count devices,  putting all terminations underneath the package instead of around the edges as they are on a QFP saves a lot of space allowing smaller products to be made.

Using a 2-dimensional grid means that ball to ball spacing can be quite coarse compared to the lead pitch of a high pin count QFP – so less problems with solder shorts.

Consequently they are easier to solder, no legs to get damaged and they have a huge self centering effect due to the high solder surface tension effects caused by the array of solder balls.

High pin count QFP’s by contrast either have to be bigger to accommodate the same number of edge mounted pinouts or the legs have to be extremely fine and damage prone.

So they are easy to handle and give very high assembly yields – consequently they have started to supplant other package styles in mass production.

3. Are they difficult to place by machine?

From a manufacturing perspective; a BGA is designed to be machine placed using vision systems to align the device to the grid of pads on the PCB.  During reflow it has a very strong self centering effect due to the surface tension of all the solder balls – consequently it is quite tolerant of placement errors – as much as half a pitch of misalignment will usually not cause problems.  Most machine systems place far more accurately than this.

4. But what about hand placing?

However, every silver lining etc:  A BGA is not designed for hand assembly.  Of course there will be a very small need to do so – for e.g. a prototype.  Whilst this is tricky, it is not, as we shall see, impossible

5. How do you know if a BGA has fully soldered – and don’t you need an X-ray machine?

Once a BGA  has been soldered it is impossible to visually inspect the joint – the only viable method is to use x ray or possibly fibre optic endoscopes – so how do you know if it has soldered properly?  Well the question should be “why do you want to inspect it anyway?”  People feel they need to inspect because they can’t be sure of their soldering process.    Most assemblers use convection ovens and despite all that the manufacturers claim, there is no way that hot air can penetrate fully under a BGA package that is sitting a millimetre or two from the board and heat every ball the same.  The centre balls will inevitably be cooler than the outer ones.  What actually has to happen is the package must heat through by conduction and often overheat the outer edge to ensure the centre sees the right temperature..

We use a different type of soldering (see 9) – and we can be certain of the soldering conditions – therefore we can say that since every ball has reached a known temperature – no matter where in the grid they are, the device will have soldered properly.

This is born out in practice – over 2000 BGA’s soldered, no reported failures – and we don’t have an x ray facility.  One customer did x-ray a board and the results were perfect

6. Can a BGA be removed, reworked and replaced?

If a BGA has to be removed it cannot be done without destroying the balls beneath the device.  Usually this means the device is scrapped although high value BGAs can be recovered by specialist companies who can re-ball the package so it can be used again.  A typical cost of doing this may be £70 so clearly only worth doing on devices worth much more.

We are in the business of low volume manufacture so the BGA device initially presented us with some concerns.  However, we have evolved methods of assembly that work and are viable.  We have in fact, to date, (mid 2005) placed in excess of 2000 devices – all by hand and without defect.  We now have fully automatic placement capability through our MYDATA machine and semi auto placement on our Fritsch MicroPlacer.

7. What can be done at the PCB design stage to make life easier for the assembly company?

Alignment/inspection markings.

As the package itself obscures the grid of connections it is impossible to see if the package is in the right place.  For this reason alignment indicators are extremely useful – see photo.   Note how they have made two chevron marks on opposite corners – they have used two marks per corner to allow for two different package dimensions – most people only use a single mark per corner.  Even a simple dot at each corner will do – two corners minimum but three or all is better still – see photograph.

Please Note that these marks MUST be in the copper itself, silkscreen printing is nowhere near accurate enough for this purpose.

A pin 1 mark that is not obscured by the package – this can be done in silkscreen.  It’s amazing how many pin one marks vanish once the package is down…

DOs and DON’Ts and things that are OK

Resist defined pads are OK

Don’t put vias in BGA pads – unless they are microvias. The solder ball will wick down the hole by capillary action and you WILL get an open.  These are non-repairable and not covered by our warranty.

DO make sure vias on short stubs have a resist barrier between via and BGA pad – or the same thing will happen.

Wetting indicator pads (dog bone or tear-drop shaped) are OK if you want to use them to us – but not so popular now.  They were intended to allow an x ray photo to reveal that the ball has wetted the pad by distorting its shape

8. What works best – printed paste or flux only?

Two main methods for fitting BGAs are in use:

Printed Solder Paste

The main method is to print paste to all BGA pads along with all the usual SMT parts, the device is placed onto the paste and reflowed with the rest of the parts.

Having solder paste is said to take up minor co planarity errors if the device or PCB is warped although this sis debatable.  This method is fine for machine or vision assisted placing as any smears of the printed solder paste can lead to short circuits just where they are least wanted.

The real risk of using printed paste is that if it is too much – or gets smeared – a solder ball can become large enough to touch its neighbour and form a short that is impossible to remove – or see unless it is on the outer edge or you have x ray facilities.

Flux only method.

This is approved by Motorola (the inventor of the package) and is the method usually used if reworking a package onto an otherwise populated board.  IF a board is already loaded with parts it is not usually possible to re-paste the BGA pads – although micro stencils are made for this purpose.  Instead flux is applied to the pads or the BGA balls themselves and the joint is made during reflow by the solder from the ball flowing onto the pad.   Some people think that the lack of solder paste may increase the likelihood of an open is the device or board is warped but in practice we have never had one in over 2000 parts.

A characteristic of this method is that the package will sit a little lower on the PCB, as the solder ball has not been increased in volume by the printed paste.

9. Thoughts on BGA soldering.

After much analysis – I decided that what worried people most about BGAs was not alignment – that turned out to be easier than everyone first thought.  No, it was “has the flipping thing soldered?”  You can’t have a quick squint under the microscope so how do I really know that the balls right underneath have gone?

SOLDERING METHODS

So what methods are in use – and why are people uncertain?

Most people in the SMT world had switched to convection (hot air) ovens long before BGAs arrived.  Unfortunately if they had stuck with the first generation infrared systems they’d have been better off.

Problem is a BGA has all its connections underneath – the BGA body to PCB gap is a millimetre or so.  Now you have to get even heating right under the BGA – just one cold spot means a defective joint.  Hot air – even if turbulent just is not going to penetrate that well into such a narrow gap.   So what do solderers do?  They either increase the temperature to ensure that every part of the device is hot enough or increase the heating time so as to allow the package time to heat through by conduction.  Hence why IR is better – it heats the package rather than tries to blow heated air under a narrow opening.

However, there is a third heating method – the one we use.  It is guaranteed to heat every part of every device evenly, it is impossible to overheat from its specified temperature, it completely surrounds the job in an oxygen free, totally inert environment which helps the flux do its job better still.  What is this heating method: it is now called “condensation reflow” although many old hands at SMT know it as Vapour Phase soldering.

A quick description is that the process uses a special chemical (basically a fluorocarbon) that boils at a known temperature – we use a 230-degree BP.   The boards to be soldered are placed in a chamber in the bottom of which is a sump of this fluid, which is heated.  AS it heats up it produces steam – which just like it does in your kitchen condenses on any surface cooler than itself.  As it condenses it give sup its heat to the cooler item.  Steadily the cooler PCB gets hotter – until eventually (having passed the solder melting point) it reached the same temperature of the steam.  At that point no more steam can condense – a special heat probe detects this point and shuts off the heat source.  The liquid stops boiling, the PCB can be removed from the steam chamber to cool.   The vapour blanket is totally inert and heavier than air so all oxygen is displaced from the joints – so the flux only has to clean the joint not also cope with the oxidation occurring during normal reflow in air.  Less active fluxes can be used.

Also the vapour penetrates everywhere – around tall objects, down between things and crucially for us – under BGAs.  The whole board and parts are evenly heated, all around and from both sides.  In a conventional linear oven the hot front moves along the board so that at any time there is a wide variation in temperatures across the board – this can lead to distortion.

This content has been taken from http://www.allgoodtechnology.com/pages/bgaguide.htm

Condensation reflow is not without its critics (who often seem to make rival technology ovens surprisingly).  The first generation VP systems plunged a board at ambient temp into a steam blanket – imagine walking into a Turkish baths – instant thermal shock.  The current generation machines like ours start with the fluid at ambient too – it gently heats up and the temperature rises slowly – our system shows a rise of below 2 degrees a second – considered ideal by the component manufacturers.

END.

bga machine

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CHIPTRONIKS , A Division of VD Intellisys is Authorized Distributor of  JOVY SYSTEMS BGA REWORK STATIONS in India . For more details visit http://www.bga-rework.in or call 09971004998

BGA Rework Station

BGA is short for Ball Grid Array. It is a kind of package method which use organic carrier in IC. It has the following features:
1. Small package area.
2. Greater functions and more pins
3. Self-centerize while PCB puddle welding, easy to put on tin.
4. More reliable.
5. Good conductivity and low overall cost. Memory which applies BGA can enlarge the memory capacity by 2 to 3 times while the volume of memory remains the same. Compared with TSOP, BGA is much smaller and better at radiating and conducting electricity.

Types of BGA

According to the encapsulation material, BGA can be classified into the following types:

  • PBGA(Plastic BGA)
  • CBGA(Ceramic BGA)
  • TBGA(Tape BGA)
  • CCBGA(Ceramic Column BGA)
  • (Chip Scale Package or MBGA)
  • Features of BGA

    Compared with QFP, BGA has the following features:

  • I/O terminal space is big (eg. 1.0mm, 1.27mm, 1.5mm), and it can accommodate more I/O.
  • More reliable package, low rate of welding defects and welding spot durable.
  • Paraposition of QFP is usually observed with naked eyes. When the pin space is smaller than 0.4mm, it is hard to paraposition and weld. While the pin space of BGA is bigger, by applying the paraposition-amplification device.
  • Easy to paraposition and weld.
  • The welding coplanarity of BGA is better than QFP, because solder can make up the flat error between BGA and PCB after melting.
  • Good electrical property. The pins are small, the self-inductance and mutual inductance of the conductivity is low, and the frequency characteristic is good.
  • The tension between solder points produces good self-centration effect in solder-reflow, allowing 5% error of patch precision.
  • Compatible with original SMT mount technology and machines. The original screen printer machine, mounter and solder-reflow machine all can be used.
  • BGA Rework Process

    Most of the semiconductor device’s heat-resistant temperatures are between 240°C and 600 °C. Therefore, the control of the temperature and uniformity are very important to BGA rework systems. BGA rework process as follows:

  • Printed Circuit Board and BGA preheating: Printed Circuit Board and BGA’s preheating is meant to wipe off the moisture. (If the moisture was little, this step can be omitted)
  • Remove BGA: If the BGA will not be reused, and the PCB can endure high temperature, we can use high temperature (shorter heating period) to remove it.
  • Clean the pad: Pad cleaning is mainly clearing the solder paste and scaling powder remained on the surface of PCB after BGA removal. For that process, it must use standard cleaning agent. To ensure the reliability of the BGA solders, generally we cannot use the remained solder paste in the pad, and we must clear away the used solder paste, except that solder balls reform on the BGA. Because of the small size of BGA, especially CSP (or μBGA smaller), it is always difficult to cleaning the pad, so when reworking CSP, it needs to use Rinse-free Flux if the space around CSP is very small.
  • Lay on BGA Flux Paste: Laying solder paste on the PCB has important influence on the result of BGA Rework. It is convenient to lay solder paste on the PCB by selecting mould matched with BGA. For CSP, there are three solder pastes for choice, including flux paste, clean-free and water-soluble. If we choose the flux paste, the reflow time should be longer, if choose the clean-free solder paste, reflux temperature should be lower.
    Mounting: The main purpose of mounting to make every BGA solder align to the PCB pad with special equipment.
    Hot air reflows: Hot air reflow soldering is the key to the whole BGA Rework.
  • The curve of reflow soldering of BGA Rework should be similar with the original soldering one. Hot air reflow soldering curve can be divided into four zones, including preheat zone, heating zone, recirculation zone and cooling area. These four zones’ temperature and time parameter can be set respectively, when it connects with the computer, these programs can be saved and transferred at any moment.
  • In reflow soldering process, we must choose the right heating temperature and time of different zones; at the same time, we should notice the heating speed. Commonly, the maximal heating rate is not more than 6℃/s before 100℃, and the maximal heating rate is not more than 3℃/s after 100℃. In the cooling zone, the maximal cooling rate is not more than 6℃/s, because both of the exorbitant heating rate and cooling rate may cause damage to PCB and BGA, which sometimes cannot be observed by unaided eyes. For different BGA and different solder pastes, we should choose different heating temperature and time. For example, reflux temperature of CBGA BGA should be higher than that of PBGA…choose the higher reflux temperature. For no clean solder paste, its activity is lower than non-no clean solder paste, so the soldering temperature should not be too high, and the soldering time should not be too long, so as to prevent the oxidation of solder particle.
  • In hot air reflow soldering, the bottom of PCB board should be heated. There are two purposes for this kind of heating. First, avoid the warping and deformation in one-side heated PCB board; second, shorten the time of the solder paste melting. For the dimension pad of BGA rework, this kind of heating on the bottom of PCB is especially important. There are two ways of heating on the bottom of BGA rework equipment. One of them is hot air heating, and the other is infrared ray heating. The advantage of hot air heating is the homogeneous heating, which common Rework Techniques suggest to adopt this way of heating. What opposite with it is the disadvantage of infrared ray’s inhomogeneous heating.
  • We should choose the right hot air reflux suction nozzle. The hot air reflux nozzle is non-contact heating, which depend on the high temperature air current make every solder of joint on BGA melt synchronously. For that reason, it ensures the steady temperature circumstance in the whole of reflux process, and it protects the adjacent parts from damaging by the convective hot air’s regeneration.
  • BGA Installation

    In order to ensure the validity of BGA Rework Station, the installation should meet the following requirements.

  • Away from inflammable and explosives
  • Away from water and other liquids
  • Ventilated, dry place
  • Stable and flat, free from tremor
  • Less dust
  • No heavy objects on the controlling box
  • Not affected by airflow of air conditioner, heater or ventilator
  • Leave a space of 30cm or more behind the rework station for the upper part to move and rotate
  • Bga Power supply:

  • Use a power supply with little fluctuations in voltage
  • Fluctuation: 220V±10
  • Frequency fluctuation: 50Hz±3
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