Posts tagged laptop repairing institute delhi
Notebook Embedded Controller Introduction
Today in this article I will discuss a very important topic of Notebook Embedded Controller which is a key element in laptop repairing.
The position of the BIOS (Basic Input / Output System, basic input output system) in the entire system is very important , which implements the underlying hardware and operating system, the upper North bridge. For Example for copying a file from the CD to the hard drive, we need to know, “copy and paste” command, we need not require exactly how to read from the CD, and then how to write to the hard disk. For the operating system, BIOS also only need to issue commands to, without having to know how to read the disc, a hard disk is how to write. BIOS build the operating system and underlying hardware bridge.
And we usually say the BIOS settings which mean its software settings, such as setting the boot order, disable / enable some features and so on. But there is a problem in the hardware, BIOS is how to achieve it? After all, the software is running on the hardware platform, right? So we must mention Embedded Controller .
EC (Embedded Controller) is a 16-bit microcontroller, which itself has a certain capacity within the Flash to store the EC code. EC’s position in the system, not inferior to north and south bridge, the system is turned on in the process, EC controls the vast majority of important signal timing. In notebook, EC is always open, whether you are in the boot or shutdown state, unless you completely remove the battery and the Adapter.
In the off state, EC to keep running, and waits for the user’s boot information. In the boot, EC even as a keyboard controller, charging indicator light and fan control equipment, and it even controls the system standby, hibernation state.
The EC now has two architectures,:
(A) that the BIOS FLASH via X-BUS received EC, and EC southbridge through the LPC received, generally this case the EC code is also placed in FLASH , that is, and BIOS share a FLASH.
(B)The right is relatively new architecture, EC and FLASH together received LPC bus, generally only uses EC internal ROM. As for the LPC bus, it was originally intended to replace low INTEL behind the launch of X-BUS bus standard.
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A Blue Screen of Death (BSOD), is technically called a STOP error. It occurs when Windows suffers a serious error and is forced to “stop” completely.
Since a blue screen error gives you no choice but to restart, troubleshooting it can be difficult. Every STOP error includes a STOP code that can we can research to fix the problem.
Complete list of STOP codes from STOP error 0x1 (0x00000001) to STOP error 0x5F (0x0000005F).
Complete list of STOP codes from STOP error 0x60 (0x00000060) to STOP error 0xBF (0x000000BF).
Complete list of STOP codes from STOP error 0xC1 (0x000000C1) to STOP error 0x11D (0x0000011D).
Complete list of STOP codes from STOP error 0x121 (0x00000121) to STOP error 0xC0000221.
STOP Error 0xDEADDEAD: MANUALLY_INITIATED_CRASH1
STOP error 0xDEADDEAD means that the user deliberately initiated a crash dump from either the kernel debugger or the keyboard. STOP code 0xDEADDEAD may also display “MANUALLY_INITIATED_CRASH1” on the same STOP message.
- AMD CPU Info: Software from AMD to correctly detect the installed AMD CPU on your PC.
- AMD CPUID: Software from AMD to detect the CPU clock, L1 and L2 memory cache, model, revision and supported instruction sets.
- AMD OverDrive: Program for identifying, monitoring and overclocking AMD CPUs.
- AMI Motherboard ID Utility: Finds out your motherboard manufacturer if its BIOS is from AMI.
- BIOS Agent: Software that identifies everything about your BIOS and the need of a BIOS upgrade.
- Cpuid: Identifies the installed CPU.
- Cpuidw: Identifies the installed CPU.
- CPU-Z: Identifies the installed CPU.
- CD-R Identifier: Identifies the CD-R media brand name. It is necessary to install ForceASPI first, which is also available at this link.
- Codec Check: Small utility that detects which audio codec your motherboard has, allowing you to install the correct audio driver on your system.
- Ctbios: Finds out your motherboard manufacturer.
- Ctbios 1.5: Ctbios more updated version. Besides recognizing your PC motherboard manufacturer, it gives you a lot of information about it. The only problem is that this is software is in german.
- Ctp2info: Checks if your Pentium II or Pentium III processor is counterfeit or not.
- Ctpci: Lists all PCI devices installed on your PCI. Very usefull to find out your motherboard real chipset.
- Dimm_id: Checks if the type of SDRAM memory installed on your PC is PC-66 or PC-100.
- EVEREST Home Edition: Indentifies your PC hardware, including your motherboard manufacturer and model.
- GPU-Z: Program that reports all features from your video card graphics chip (GPU).
- Hwinfo: Excelente indentification software. Very useful to determine your motherboard manufacturer, model and chipset. More updated than Ctbios.
- Intel Turbo Boost Monitor: Small utility to monitor Turbo Boost tecnology.
- MobileMeter: Program for monitoring the temperature, clock rates and battery charge/discharge from your laptop.
- PC-Config: Identifies all components from your PC.
- PC Wizard: Program that identifies all hardware parts installed on your PC.
- Sandra: Identification, test and benchmarking software.
- Unknown Device Identifier: Software for identifying unknown devices installed on your PC, excellent to find out more information about devices Windows isn’t able to correctly detect.
- Wcpuid 3.0: Identifies the installed CPU, giving you detailed info about it.